Friday, February 28, 2020

Computer Communications and Netwoks Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Computer Communications and Netwoks - Essay Example The motivation behind the creation of communication systems is due to the need for the improvement of transmission reliability. This is due to the reduction of errors in the process of sending and the reception of messages. Communications systems also increase the transmission capacity with the ability of sending large sizes of data in a single mode for a short time. In order to enable the exchange of information, there must be the transmission of the information from different devices, through a communication channel. There exists different communication media such as optical fiber and microwaves that possess unique characteristics for optimum performance. The integration of all the components of information technology forms a communication system (Beavin, p. 12). There are various requirements for computer communication. Such components include computer hardware. These are the tangible physical components of the computer. For instance, a Modem is one of the hardware devices that have the ability to send signals from one computer to another over telephone signals. This comprises of the computer inputs for communication purposes. The other component is computer software. This controls the computer operations, according to the instructions of the users. The software allows computers to interact with other computers through the management of resources. Some of the utility software contains language translators for easy communication between computers. Another component is the availability of a database. This is the storage of related data in an organized manner. This enables users to retrieve information when they require, for communication purposes. Through the Database Management System (DBMS), users have the ability to create, maintain, and a ccess a database. The other component is the availability of a network. Computers have the ability to converge telephone networks, in addition to other networks of communication that use both data and voice for

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

School and Sociaty Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

School and Sociaty - Research Paper Example Mann is known as â€Å"father of American common school† Talented and hard working teachers can mould a weak student into a strong one. There should be similarity in text books and criterion is set to select teachers. Teachers be paid good amount as salary to motivate them and make job respectable. Tozer states that â€Å"schools are complex institutions with diverse and complicated relationships to the communities in their surroundings†. Now teachers are supposed to understand the link of education with society and should set goals accordingly. Now political economy is term which comprises of political, cultural, social and economical aspects of society. In the same way ideology covers the beliefs and ideas of a society. Therefore these are not separate terms and must be studied in relation to each other. (Tozer, Violas & Senese, 2001) Now if I apply all these terms on my education then my education did not commensurate to my future social and economic challenges. When I went to college, than I realized that school education was just useless for me as I was unable to perform well. I was weak in mathematics therefore I was unable to perform well as a cashier in a grocery shop. Here comes the fault of my school system. Schools of Bronx New York were overcrowded. Teachers were under educated and were low paid. Teachers were also not made accountable by the government authorities for imparting poor education. This weak foundation grew with me and I faced lot of problems in higher education and in job as well. Thomas Jefferson says that citizens should be educated in way that they can liberally understand the world and should also know the functioning of society. Local schools system of a society should be able to run and mange school in a great fashion. Jefferson emphasized on training of mental abilities in his educational ideal. He gave the idea of autonomy to every diverse school district. Primary schools education should be developed in such a wa y that in future the students can ensure the existence of society. Jefferson’s ideal has not played any part in my education. After my basic education I was unacceptable to the society because of poor educational background. Jefferson wants to see an educational system that can strengthen all dimensions of society including economy. After completing basic education I was unable to handle minor accounts efficiently. Initially I was taken as thief in grocery shop because of cash shortage on daily basis but ultimately I was fired. Jefferson wanted students to understand all dimensions of society including ideology and demography. When appeared in entrance exam for admission in a college, I could not understand any thing in the paper and got failed. I did not know the basics of English, Mathematics and history (Gramsci, 2009) Now the schools are accessible to every child but previously the distance to schools was the de motivating factor for students. I will highlight the quality of teachers here as I suffered a lot from this aspect in my life. It is the teacher who can shape the life of his students for making them important part of the society. My teachers were not highly educated as I was studying in a normal public school. Jefferson and Mann always emphasized on highly qualified and enlightened teachers. When I appeared for entrance exam I was unable to understand any thing. I did not know basics about Mathematics and English. I was also fired

Friday, January 31, 2020

Kim Challenger Essay Example for Free

Kim Challenger Essay What do your chosen three stories of Sir Arthur Conan Doyles stories tell us about English society in the nineteenth century? The three short stories I have decided to study are, The Speckled Band, Silver Blaze, and The Man with the Twisted Lip. These were all written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and are of a detective genre. They were first published in a magazine in the Victorian times called The Strand. The stories are all of a similar length because they fitted into columns in the magazine and were all short stories. On Conan Doyles last story, The Final Problem, there was a public outcry because they loved Sherlock Holmess character so much and Conan Doyle killed him off. As a result of this outcry, Conan Doyle was forced to bring him back in The Empty House, in 1905. The Victorian period is the time when Queen Victoria ruled the British Empire from 1837 to 1901. It was a time of growth in the areas of wealth, technology, culture and literature. There was a class system and this was believed to have been dictated by God. There were three classes; upper class, middle class and working class. There was also an underclass who could not support themselves and lived in extreme poverty. The upper class consisted of the Queen, aristocrats, lords and ladies. The middle class consisted of businessmen and the working class consisted of servants. The Victorians were very religious; they went to church every Sunday and said prayers before meals. The vast majority of them were Anglican. Life for women and children was unbearably hard. As soon as a child could walk, it was expected to work; making matchboxes was one of the main jobs for children as it was easy. Women from all classes were expected to be married young and to raise a family of their own. Few marriages in the middle and upper classes were love matches, but were arranged by parents. Victorian London is where Sherlock is based but not necessarily where all the crimes took place. For example, I (Watson) walked holding my breath to keep out the vile, stupefying fumes of the drug. This took place in The Man with the Twisted Lip. This story was set in London.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Abraham Lincoln Essay -- essays research papers fc

Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was born on Sunday, February 12, 1809. His parents were Tom and Nancy Hanks Lincoln. When he was seven, he and his family moved to southern Indiana. His mother had died recently of a disease and his father eventually remarried. While growing up, his nature was that of someone who wanted to learn and read rather than help with the farm. Even at an early age he showed signs of being an intelligent person with insight into the world around him. Later on, he moved to New Salem, Illinois, where he lived until he was about 28 years old. He worked several odd jobs during his time here and even earned the famous nickname â€Å"Honest Abe† during his stay. Eventually he made a run for the Illinois legislature and lost the first time he tried. However, he won the next four times after that first one. At first, Lincoln was a member of the Whig party, but later changed to Republican. Another endeavor during his time there included studying in his spare time and he eventual ly became a certified lawyer. In Springfield, Illinois, he met his future wife, Mary Todd. They became fast friends and about three years later, they wed. During the next eleven years, they had four children, all boys. Sadly, all but one died before the age of 18. Lincoln himself had to go through the misery of burying two of them. He became a very successful attorney and grew to be very wealthy. It was in the year of 1846 that Lincoln decided to continue his political career and decided to run for the United States House of Representatives. To no one’s surprise, he won. He was widely known for his advocacy against slavery. Lincoln felt that slavery was a great evil within a great nation. â€Å"For him, slavery and freedom were incompatible; for one to live, the other must die.† (History Book, 512). He also strongly opposed The Mexican War. After his term was over, he decided to go home and continue with his law practice. In 1850, he decided to join the Republican Party and ran against Stephen A. Do uglas for his spot in the Senate. In 1858, at one of his speeches in Illinois, he made a quite informative speech about his and the Republican party’s point of view on slavery. â€Å"We have in this nation the element of domestic slavery. The Republican Party thinks it wrong - we think it is a moral, a social, and a political wrong. We think it is wrong not confining itself merely to the... ...omb at Oak Ridge cemetery. To this day, people remember him not only as a one of the greatest presidents ever, but also as a great human being. His dedication and courage throughout the war helped make The United States whole again and made sure that something like this would hopefully never happen again. His face is seen every day on a five dollar bill, on a penny and even on Mount Rushmore. He did something not very men have ever done. He brought an entire nation together again and guided it through the most devastating experience that this nation has faced. Works Cited Books - Mason, Lorna C, William Jay Jacobs, and Robert P Ludlum. The History of the United States. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1992. Donald, David H. LINCOLN. New York, New York: Touchstone Company, 1996 Guelzo, Allen C. Abraham Lincoln. Boston: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999 Internet –   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚, Why was Lincoln Shot?, Unknown, 05-16-01, Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Unknown, 12-1-03, Abraham Lincoln, Brità ¡nica.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Economic Factors Affecting Poverty

Poverty is a major problem in the United States today. This mind map includes the categories of individual behavior, social factors, economic factors, political factors, and cultural factors are all contributing forces that causes poverty. For economic factors, low wages would be the variable that would lead to poverty. Families that receive low wages would barely support their living expenses. Thus they would not have enough money for programs that would aid their children†s education. Some families think that crime has better incentives than working a low paying job and thus crime could be put in as an economic factor that leads to poverty. Not having enough money for programs like education leads to the individual behavior of illiteracy and lower education, since the parents cannot afford to send their children to upper level education. And if these children know that they have no future in higher education, they will not have the motivation to do well in school and thus dropping out of school. In turn this will lead to having low self-esteem because they know that they will basically be stuck in poverty for the rest of their lives. This will eventually lead to substance abuse because they need something to overcome their high levels of stress that is produced by low self-esteem. In turn substance abuse could lead to sickness and disease, and then could possibly lead to mental illness. Once this happens, individual behavior will cause families to be in poverty. For social factors, discrimination would be the variable that causes poverty. Racial discrimination from an employer could lead for that person to not receive a higher paying job, in which could lead to violence from the potential employee towards the employer. In turn a crime could be committed in revolt of the employer. Thus the social factor of violence interconnects with the economic factor of crime. Also racial discrimination could lead to institutional discrimination. Thus this will lead to substandard schools in which teachers are told to split up a class and place each student in a designated group depending on their race and the teacher†s assumptions of the student†s learning ability from their social classifications. For cultural factors, biased IQ test would be interconnected to substandard schools. These tests measure a student†s school achievement. And if there are substandard schools, the students who are placed into the higher groups, the will do better than those who are placed in a lower group. And thus these IQ tests would lead to the deficiency theory, which suggests that ‘the poor are poor because they do not measure up to the more well to do in intellectual endowment.† Also the social factor of racial discrimination is interconnected to the cultural factor of minority race. Those who are the minority, the main culture will produce basic assumptions about minority†s abilities to be successful or well to do. For political factors, meritocracy would be interconnected to minority race. Meritocracy basically is the social classification by ability. Thus the assumptions produced will the levels of ability. The power elite produces meritocracy. These are the people who believe that ‘the fundamental assumption of capitalism is individual gain without regard for what the resulting behaviors may mean for other people†, especially those in poverty. Also the poor are not significantly counted in the US Census, so the government is misinformed on the levels of poverty.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Prada and Racism - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 1018 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2019/02/01 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Racism Essay Did you like this example? THE STORY Prada has recently launched a series of figures in the shape of creatures called Pradamalia that were to be sold as handbag keychains in a window display in New York City. One of the trinkets, a cartoonish wooden monkey with brown skin and exaggerated red lips which is closely resembled the blackface â€Å"Sambo-like imagery†. One day, one New Yorker spotted the figures in a Prada window display and she decided to share the disgusting and accusing Prada of spreading racist blackface imagery in social media. On Friday, December 14, 2018, Prada announced to pull the accessories and displays from its stores following complaints that they featured â€Å"blackface imagery.† Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Prada and Racism" essay for you Create order Response from audience Chinyere Ezie posted a status in disgust: â€Å"I don’t make a lot of public posts, but right now I’m shaking with anger. Today after returning to NYC after a very emotional visit to the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture including an exhibit on blackface, I walked past Prada’s Soho storefront only to be confronted with the very same racist and denigrating blackface imagery. I entered the store with a coworker, only to be assaulted with more and more bewildering examples of their Sambo-like imagery.† Looking back: Places the imagery side by side with historically racist images Prada’s designer background Miuccia Prada is head designer of Prada and the founder of its subsidiary Miu Miu. She studied mime at the Teatro Piccolo, following a political science Ph.D. at the University of Milan. In addition, she was a member of the Italian Communist party, where she picketed in Yves Saint Laurent. Her fabulous quotation was that she thought beauty was ‘bourgeois,’ which seems like a good Communist quote. â€Å"Every young kid who was vaguely clever was Leftist,† she shrugs today. â€Å"So it’s not that I was so special.† She was the focus on the all-white, homogeneous runways of the 1990s, but in recent years she has been changed for casting models of color in her advertising products. In September 2018, her art foundation opened â€Å"The Black Image Corporation,† conceived by artist Theaster Gates. In order to celebrate the opening of the Milan exhibition, directors Spike Lee and Dee Rees did a panel discussion with Gates on racism in America. In October 2018, the company introduced the collection called Pradamalia that are similar to cartoon robots. Taken as a group, the characters are a silly mix. Some resemble primates, and some look like dogs, others resemble sci-fi octopuses. The company has been illustrating pictures of these figurines on Instagram for several weeks, and they have been featured in the flagship store in Milan. Cultural and Semiotic Analysis Sambo is a character in the 1899 children’s book The Story of Little Black Sambo, written and illustrated by Scottish author Helen Bannerman. The image has deep black skin and oversized red lips that distort and exaggerate African facial features. The image of Little Black Sambo coincided with Jim Crow laws and etiquette. Many whites stereotyped Blacks to be denied basic human and civil rights, discriminated against in the labor market, barred from many public schools and libraries, subjected to physical violence, and generally treated as second-class citizens. When Little Black Sambo came to America, a white-initiated riot happened in New Orleans. Then, blacks were beaten, their schools and homes destroyed. In fact, the core ideology of the Sambo caricature is the happy slave. White slave owners molded African-American males into a child who was happy to serve his master. However, the image of Sambo was lazy, lack of intelligence, and, because of this, they were always dependent upon his masters or caretakers. Although Sambo did not the defense for slavery, it extended far beyond these boundaries. This stereotype was transmitted through lyrics, folk sayings, literature and children’s stories. It was disseminated over and over again, shaping the attitudes toward African-Americans for centuries. In fact, â€Å"a stereotype may be so consistently transmitted in each generation from parent to child that it seems almost a biological fact† (Boskin, 1986, p. 12). Misrepresentation in the media and its impact now. Now, we can see Sambo caricature could give the images of color boys and men being accompanied by lazy and abusing the social welfare programs. Once color people are allowed to participate in these programs, white supremacist politicians make these stereotypes to create ways to exclude them through different suitability tests and working requirements which would make them more freedom to discriminate. Now, Prada’s figurines also do the same offensive discrimination ways again. What should we respond to them? Just now read the following response of Prada in their Twitter. Prada’s Response â€Å"Prada Group abhors racist imagery. The Pradamalia are fantasy charms composed of elements of the Prada oeuvre. They are imaginary creatures not intended to have any reference to the real world and certainly not blackface,† the company said. Prada Group never had the intention of offending anyone and we abhor all forms of racism and racist imagery. In this interest, we will withdraw the characters in question from display and circulation. Let us think more deeper Marketing Analysis? Here is a question, is Prada company intentionally creating content (figurines) that will cause viral online? I have doubt about that Prada releasing these racially insensitive figurines are simply unaware. Over the past ten years of Twitters existence, something is crystal clear. Black Twitter has emerged as a force to drive attention to the issues ignored by mainstream media. By means of hashtag campaigns (now is #StopBlackface, #BoycottPrada), now I have a question, is Prada company intentionally hoping to draw the movements like Black Twitter to bring more attention to their brands? The cycle is obviously repetitive: A brand displays offensive material, the online community responds with outrage, and then the media covers it. Finally, the brand pulls down the offensive material, issues an apology and everyone goes back to normal. Racism may become a marketing tool for brands. What should we do now? We should refuse to engage in any games, refuse to give any chance to treat black history as a fashion statement.

Monday, December 30, 2019

The Importance Of Mechanical Engineering - 1561 Words

Mechanical Engineering Samaj vassar â€Å"Manufacturing is more than just putting parts together. Its coming up with ideas, testing principles and perfecting the engineering, as well as final assembly† (Dyson). You may find yourself asking, â€Å"What is engineering?† It is defined as â€Å"the application of science and mathematics by which the properties of matter and the sources of energy in nature are made useful to people† (Merriam Webster). However, there has always been one specific aspect that interests me, and that is mechanical engineering and its impact on the world. Oddly enough, when you ask what mechanical engineering is you’ll get hundreds of different answers. Although, there is a pretty unanimous misconception about this subfield;†¦show more content†¦(Environmental Control Engineer Career Information). In latent terms, environmental control engineers help control air pollution, water reclamation land preservation while managing material that is hazardous to the env ironment. Without these engineers dedicating their lives to this field we may have never made advancements such as the Cyclone. In the book Air Pollution Controlling Engineering, the author Lawrence K. Wang described cyclones as â€Å" of the most utilized drives for solid gas separation. It works by forcing gaseous suspensions to flow spirally within a confined space so that the particles are expelled toward the wall of the vessel by centrifugal; force†¦ cyclones have a wide range of industrial applications either in product recovery or gas cleaning† (Wang, 98). By doing so, cyclones help to remove particulate matter which is is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. If inhaled, these particles can affect the heart and lungs and cause serious health effects from the air. They are able to remove 50-99% of all particle pattern from the gas that is inShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Mechanical Engineering1427 Words   |  6 PagesThe Importance of Engineering/Mechanical Engineering in the world. Mechanical Engineering is Important because without it we wouldn’t have things we have today, a lot of us have no clue about that help’s us In everyday life. 16 year old dies in a pool from the pool’s drain in May 1996 this caused Trio-dyne who’s a Mechanical Engineer to design a drain cover to stop the drain from sucking in people and hopefully save the next victim (Improving Pool Safety by Valenti Michael). This is an Example ofRead MoreMechanical Engineering : The Evolution Of Mechanical Engineering924 Words   |  4 PagesMechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering has always been something of major importance in the world. Technology such as computers and automobiles won’t be possible without the work of mechanical engineers across the globe. 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Although I knew several engineers, and many of the teachers in the pre-engineering program are practicing engineers, none of them lookedRead MoreImportance of Cad in Civil Engineering1397 Words   |  6 Pages Importance of Computer Aided Drafting in Civil Engineering Eric Belile Delaware Technical Community College Composition, English 121 Ms. Cynthia Mack 7/17/13 Importance of Computer Aided Drafting in Civil Engineering Throughout the last few years, technology has been improving the lives of people from all walks of life and all fields of study. One of the big pieces of technology in the civil engineering field today is computer aided drafting. AutoCAD is a computer

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Our Iceberg Is Melting, By John Kotter - 1421 Words

â€Å"Once upon a time a colony of penguins was living in the frozen Antarctic on an iceberg near what we call today Cape Washington.† From the first sentence of John Kotter’s bestselling book, Our Iceberg Is Melting, it is difficult to tell that one is about to read a great fable about how to manage change in business as well as everyday life. ! The following summary will explain the key moments of the fable and how they relate to our lives. First, let’s introduce some of the more important penguins – the Leadership Council members. Louis, the head of the Leadership Council, could perhaps be considered the CEO of the penguin colony. Alice is a smart, aggressive member of the council, and is Fred’s loyal confidant. Buddy is a young penguin council member who may not be the brightest bulb in the box, but brings an element of trust among the council members. Fred is the most curious of all of the penguins; although he was an ‘unknown†™ penguin in the beginning, he ultimately plays a very important role in the change process. Jordan, also known as the â€Å"Professor,† was the brains of the council; he could perhaps be considered the ‘researcher’ of the group. Although the penguins start out simply as individuals, in the end, they are a well working team capable of effectively managing change. Fred, a quite curious penguin, studies the wonderful iceberg that the penguins consider home. He comes across a problem which suggests that their beloved iceberg may be in danger ofShow MoreRelatedSummary: Our Iceberg Is Melting by John Kotter2372 Words   |  10 PagesSummary: Our Iceberg is Melting Foreword by Spenser Johnson:  One the surface, the story of this book appears to be a fable that is relatively easy to grasp, but it does subtly impart an invaluable lesson on change. The book covers John Kotter’s Eight Steps to bring about successful organizational change and can be equally useful for a high-school student as it is for a CEO of a multi-national organization. Welcome Note by John Kotter:  People do not often understand the need for change. BusinessesRead MoreSummary: Our Iceberg Is Melting by John Kotter2387 Words   |  10 PagesSummary: Our Iceberg is Melting Foreword by Spenser Johnson:  One the surface, the story of this book appears to be a fable that is relatively easy to grasp, but it does subtly impart an invaluable lesson on change. The book covers John Kotter’s Eight Steps to bring about successful organizational change and can be equally useful for a high-school student as it is for a CEO of a multi-national organization. Welcome Note by John Kotter:  People do not often understand the need for change. BusinessesRead MoreOur Iceberg Is Melting By Holger Rathgeber And John Kotter1665 Words   |  7 Pages Our Iceberg is Melting by Holger Rathgeber and John Kotter tells a tale of a colony of penguins and their journey in planning, organizing, and changing their traditions for the safety of everyone and future generations. Five penguins by the name of Fred, Alice, Louis, Jordan, and Buddy, who have completely different personalities must work together as a team to find a solution to their disintegrating ice cap and overcome the obstacles that come along. As each penguin uses their skills and abilitiesRead MoreOur Iceberg Is Melting : Changing And Succeeding Under Any Conditions948 Words   |  4 Pages Challenges of Changes Monica M Stephenson Lamar University John Kotter, the author of the well known book â€Å"Our Iceberg is Melting: Changing and Succeeding under Any Conditions â€Å", taught for more than thirty years at Harvard Business School. Kotter could be considered an expert in the field of business with his many years of experience. After retiring from teaching, he then founded Kotter International and has spent his time assisting others in the area of implementing changes. HeRead MoreOur Iceberg Is Melting : Changing And Succeeding Under Any Conditions1634 Words   |  7 PagesAbout the Authors Our Iceberg Is Melting: Changing and Succeeding Under Any Conditions is a fable written by John Kotter and Holger Rathgeber. Dr. John Kotter was a professor at Harvard but is now retired. Known as the â€Å"world’s foremost leadership and change guru† (Kotter and Rathgeber, 2005, p. 147), Kotter is involved in many organizations that help others drive change and leadership. Kotter has written multiple successful books about utilizing change and leadership for self-growth. HolgerRead MoreJOHN KOTTER 8 STEPS1507 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿JOHN KOTTER 8 STEPS The above diagram is the 8steps of John Kotter towards change.This model is divided into three phase.The first phase is to create the climate for change.The first step is to create urgency, not all of the employees are open to change,for change to happen the company must develop a sense of urgency around the need for change.An honest and convincing dialouge about what is happening in the marketplace and with the competition may convince people and make them start talkingRead MoreUse Of Metaphor Intervention : A New Approach For Working With Systems Divided By Conflict And Caught Essay827 Words   |  4 PagesApplied Behavioral Science, 26: 219-239. Blanchard, Kenneth. 1981. The one minute manager. New York: Berkley. Bretts, J. A. 2008. A fable that powerfully conveys management ideas.Book review,, Brown, John Seely, Stephen Denning, Larry S. Prusak and Katalina Groh. 2005. Storytelling in organizations: Why storytelling is transforming 21st century organizations and management. Oxford: Elsevier. Broussine, Mike, and Russ Vince.Read MoreBook Review: Our Iceberg Is Melting1015 Words   |  5 PagesOur Iceberg is Melting: Changing and Succeeding Under Any Conditions John Kotter and has produced a great book that contains a wealth of wisdom and insight. While it looks and reads like a simple book, it is anything but simple. The message which Kotter is able to make clear goes much deeper than the surface story of a colony of penguins in search of answers pertaining to their survival on an iceberg. He easily describes a scenario through a penguin colony that any person can relate to and thinkRead MoreOur Iceberg Is Melting : Changing And Succeeding Under Any Condition1544 Words   |  7 PagesIt is generally noted that Albert Einstein once said, â€Å"the measure of intelligence is the ability to change†. John Kotter embedded this mindset that continually adapting and evolving can lead to success within the novel Our Iceberg is Melting: Changing and Succeeding Under Any Condition. Kotter’s and Rathgeber structural organization allows change management to be introduced through a relatable fable highlighting the needed steps to pro perly manage a group dealing with change. Tone, approachRead MoreQuestions On Organizational Learning And Change2316 Words   |  10 PagesKotter’s Eight Step Process (Kotter, Rathberger 2005).. Dr. John Kotter has confirmed with his thirty years of research that 70% of all major change efforts in an organization are not accomplished because they often do not take the holistic approach that is vital to seeing the change through to fruition. Dr. Kotter’s 8-Step Process can help my organization (Gary Community School Corporation) avoid catastrophe and grow to be adept at change so that we can improve our chances of success, adapt continuously

Friday, December 13, 2019

Ap Exam Essays Free Essays

AP Exam Essays 2001-2010 2010 AP Exam Essays 1. In what ways did ideas and values held by Puritans influence the political, economic, and social development of the New England colonies from 1630 through the 1660s? 2. Analyze the political, diplomatic, and military reasons for the United States victory in the Revolutionary War. We will write a custom essay sample on Ap Exam Essays or any similar topic only for you Order Now Confine your answer to the period 1775–1783. 3. Analyze the ways in which controversy over the extension of slavery into western territories contributed to the coming of the Civil War. Confine your answer to the period 1845–1861. 4. Analyze the roles that women played in Progressive Era reforms from the 1880s through 1920. Focus your essay on TWO of the following. †¢ Politics †¢ Social conditions †¢ Labor and working conditions 5. 5. Explain the causes and consequences of TWO of the following population movements in the United States during the period 1945–1985. †¢ Suburbanization †¢ The growth of the Sun Belt †¢ Immigration to the United States 2009 [pic]AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: From 1775 to 1830, many African Americans gained fredom from slavery, yet during the same period the institution of slavery expanded. Explain why BOTH of these changes took place. Analyze the ways that BOTH free African Americans and enslaved African Americans responded to the challenges confronting them. 2. Analyze the ways in which British imperial policies between 1763 and 1776 intensified colonials’ resistance to British rule and their comitment to republican values. 3. Analyze the social, political, and economic forces of the 1840s and early 1850s that led to the emergence of the Republican Party. 4. Choose TWO of the following organizations and explain their strategies for advancing the interests of workers. To what extent were these organizations successful in achieving their objectives? Confine your answers to the period from 1875 to 1925. Choices: Knights of Labor, American Federation of Labor, Socialist Part of America, Industrial Workers of the World. 5. Analyze the home-front experiences of TWO of the following groups during the Second World War: African Americans, Japanese Americans, Jewish Americans, Mexican Americans. 2008 [pic]AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: Analyze the ways in which the Vietnam War heightened social, political, and economic tensions in the United States. Focus your answer on the period 1964 to 1975. . Early encounters between American Indians and European colonists led to a variety of relationships among the different cultures. Analyze how the actions taken by BOTH American Indians and European colonists shaped those relationships in TWO of the following regions. Confine your answer to the 1600s: New England, Chesapeake, Spanish Southwest, New York and New France. 3. A nalyze the impact of the market revolution (1815-1860) on the economies of TWO of the following regions: the Northeast, the Midwest, the South. 4. Following Reconstruction, many southern leaders promoted the idea of a â€Å"New South. To what extent was the â€Å"New South† a reality by the time of the First World War? In your answer be sure to address TWO of the following: Economic development, Politics, Race relations. 5. Presidential elections between 1928 and 1948 revealed major shifts in political party loyalties. Analyze both the reasons for these changes and their consequences during this period. 2007 [pic]AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: Analyze the ways in which technology, government policy, and economic conditions changed American agriculture in the period 1865-1900. In your answer be sure to evaluate farmers’ responses to these changes. . Settlers in the eighteenth-century American backcountry sometimes resorted to violent protest to express their grievances. Analyz e the causes and significance of TWO of the following: March of the Paxton Boys, Regulator movement, Shays’ Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion. 3. In what ways did the Second Great Awakening in the North influence TWO of the following? Abolitionism, Temperance, the Cult of Domesticity, Utopian communities. 4. To what extent did the role of the federal government change under President Theodore Roosevelt in regard to TWO of the following: Labor, Trusts, Conservation, World affairs. 5. Landslide presidential victories do not ensure continued political effectiveness or legislative success. † Assess the validity of this statement by comparing TWO of the following presidential administration: Franklin Roosevelt (1936), Lyndon Johnson (1964), Richard Nixon (1972), Ronald Reagan (1984). 2006 [pic]AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: Discuss the changing ideals of American womanhood between the American Revolution (1770s) and the outbreak of the Civil War. What factors fostered the emergence of â €Å"republican motherhood† and the â€Å"cult of domesticity? † Assess the extent to which these ideals influenced the lives of women during this period. In your answer be sure to consider issues of race and class. 2. Analyze the differences between the Spanish settlements in the Southwest and the English colonies in New England in the seventeeth century in terms of TWO of the following: Politics, Religion, Economic development. 3. Explain why and how the role of the federal government changed as a result of the Civil War with respect to TWO of the following during the period 1861-1877. 4. Historians have argued that Progressive reform lost momentum in the 1920s. Evaluate this statement with respect to TWO of the following: Regulation of business, Labor, Immigrants. 5. While the United States appeared to be dominated by consensus and conformity in the 1950s, some Americans reacted against the status quo. Analyze the critiques of United States society made by TWO of the following: Youth, Civil Rights Activists, Intellectuals. 2005 AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: To what extent did the American Revolution fundamentally change American society? In your answer, be sure to address the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from 1775 to 1800. 2. Compare and contrast the ways in which economic development affected politics in Massachusetts and Virginia in the period from 1607 to 1750. . To what extent did the debates about the Mexican War and its aftermath reflect the sectional interests of New Englandgers, westerners, and southerners in the period from 1845 to 1855? 4. Describe the patterns of immigration in TWO of the periods listed below. Compare and contrast the responses of Americans to immigrants in these periods: 1820 to 186 0, 1880 to 1924, 1965 to 2000. 5. Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following transformed American society in the 1960s and 1970s: The Civil Rights movement, the antiwar movement, the women’s movement. 2004 AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: In what ways did the French and Indian War (1754-63) alter the political, economic, and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies? Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1740-1766 in constructing your response. 2. Analyze the impact of the American Revolution of the both slavery and the status of women in the period from 1775-1800. 3. Analyze the effectiveness of political compromise in reducing sectional tensions in the period 1820 to 1861. 4. Compare and contrast the programs and policies designed by reformers of the Progressive era to those designed by reformers of the New Deal period. Confine your answers to programs and policies that addressed the needs of those living in poverty. 5. Analyze the successes and failures of the United States Cold War policy of containment as it developed in TWO of the follow regions of the world during the period 1945 to 1975: East and Southeast Asia, Europe, Latin America, Middle East. 2003 AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: Analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration to the problems of the Great Depression. How effective were the responses? How did they change the role of the federal government? Use the documents and your knowledge of the period 1929-1941 to construct your essay. . Evaluate the extent to which the Articles of Confederation were effective in solving the problems that confronted the new nation. 3. In what ways did developments in transportation bring about economic and social change in the United States in the period 1820-1860? 4. Evaluate the impact of the Civil War on political and economic developm ents in TWO of the following regions: The South, the North, the West. Focus your answer on the period between 1865 and 1900. 5. Compare and contrast United States society in the 1920s and the 1950s with respect to TWO of the following: race relations, role of women, consumerism. 002 AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: â€Å"Reform movements in the United States sought to expand democratic ideals. † Assess the validity of this statement with specific reference to the years 1825-1850. 2. Compare the ways in which religion shaped the development of colonial society (to 1740) in TWO of the following regions: New England, Chesapeake, Middle Atlantic. 3. Analyze the contribution of TWO of the following in helping establish a stable government after the adoption of the Constitution: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington. . Compare and contrast United States foreign policy after the First World War and after the Second World War. Consider the periods 1919-1928 and 1945-1950. 5. How did the African American Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s address the failures of the Reconstruction? 2001 AP Exam Essays 1. DBQ: What were the Cold War fears of the American people in the aftermath of the Second War War? How successfully did the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower address these fears? 2. How did economic, geographic, and social factors encourage the growth of slavery as an important part of the economy of the southern colonies between 1607 and 1775? 3. The Jacksonian Period (1824-1848) has been celebrated as the era of the â€Å"common man. † To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response: Economic development, Politics, Reform movements. 4. How and why did transportation developments spark economic growth during the period from 1860 to 1900 in the United States? 5. Describe and account for the rise of nativism in American society from 1900 to 1930. 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Thursday, December 5, 2019

Strategies Preventing Combating Ransomware â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Strategies Preventing Combating Ransomware? Answer: Introduction There are several issues of viruses have been encountered by different IT users and these viruses are malware, trojan, spyware etc. Each and every type of virus is harmful for computer and network users. It has potential to damage systems, its information and network connections. Malware is considered most vulnerable virus that is difficult to recover. Ransomware is a type of malware and various harmful cases of this virus attack have encountered by network and computer users. Not only a common user but also large business organizations could not get prevention from ransomware attack. I opine that to get rid of this problem, it is necessary to use some appropriate strategies by developers and security experts. Moreover, it is also essential for users to be aware about major risks and security concerns of ransomware. The purpose of making this report is to emphasize on security concerns, strategies and future trends of ransomeware (, 2017). Background Before start discussion about ransomware in detail, its background will help to understand it. Ransomware is one of the malicious software solutions. The main intension of ransomware is to hold computer and extract files from system without owners permission. It is known as unauthorized access of data. In past days, ransomware was commonly known as AIDS that was released in 1989 (Recorded Future, 2017). The key determination of this was to encrypt the files name in computer system of victim and after this, attacker asked hefty amount from victim to get repair tool for ransomware attack. Furthermore, the introduction of RaaS also created various problems for users. With the help of RaaS, the skills of attackers to launch ransomware were increased enormously (Security Intelligence, 2017). Here RaaS stands for ransomware-as-a-service. This service of ransomware virus was developed to put bad influence of malware on victims data and systems environment. According to analysis, ransomware was considered most dangerous cyber threat. It had potential to infect victims personal computer through various sources such as by visiting to unsafe, fake and suspicious websites, by opening unknown emails and its attachments and by clicking on malicious links that are in emails, posts and other received content by victims. In this way, on the behalf of this historical analysis I can say that ransomware was very destructive by nature. That is why at that time users were also not able to get better security for this attack. Risk and Security Concerns of Ransomware From above discussion we got to know about vulnerability of ransomware. Now due to this vulnerability what kind of risks can be encountered by computer and network users, we will discuss here in detail. Risks of Ransomware The first risk that related to ransomware is erasing of all data from computer system in which it has spread. If there is no backup of computer files then it is very hard to recover whole data (Rains, 2017). Other risk factor is related to maintenance of security of sensitive data that is stored into network databases. With the help of this malicious virus, hackers can easily access data from databases by injecting virus scripts into it. These scripts not only access data from database but also damage the whole database (TechRepublic, 2017). Due to ransomware, the issues of development of fake websites is also increasing to attract people towards those websites and to access their personal and credit card information. The links of these websites are distributed through ads on popular websites to redirect visitors on it to collect their essential information (Zetter et al., 2017). Phishing has also increased due to ransomware. Cyber-attackers can easily send vulnerable codes through emails to users with executable programming files. After downloading, these attachments spread into the boot sector of computer and cause wide range of damage. These are some essential risk factors of ransomware that must be taken into consideration seriously by developers and as well as by users (, 2017). Security Concerns of Ransomware The above discussed risk factors include various security and privacy concerns of ransomware. Hacking, phishing and any other kind of vulnerable attack through ransomware leads to security issues of sensitive information of users. Besides this, some other important security concerns exist regarding ransomware. The security concern is regarding enhancement in PC performance problems. Ransomware has potential to slow down the system at large extent and due to this all important application work in slow pace and give poor performance. Ransomware works at background in any system or network, so most of the background processes got affected (Team, 2017). Due to ransomware, the interruptions from pop-ups and spam also increased. The pop-ups and spams are harmful enough and have potential to hijack victims browser and collect confidential information. Next security concern that is related to ransomware are unexplained behavior of personal computer (, 2017). Ransomware causes unexplained behavior for browser. It means, this behavior is difficult to identify by users and they become victim. The main changes that include in behavior of personal computer are installation of unknown toolbars into browser that are unexpected for user, unknown amendments in home page of browser and mistrustful results for search. Each and every security concern can give more vulnerable outcomes if proper security strategies or techniques will not be used at level of security experts (Crowe, 2017). Strategies to address security concerns of Ransomware Due to instant increase in ransomware attacks and its vulnerable impacts, it has become essential to find out strategies to identify these issues. In upcoming paragraphs, I would emphasize on some important strategies that will help to address ransomware. Identify the signs of Ransomware Monitor the Trends Awareness about New Version of Ransomware Take Sound Backups Identify the signs of Ransomware The identification of ransomware can be done through its symptoms. The slow performance of system, unknown behavior of computer applications and browsers and unavoidable call to technical support confirms that ransomware has entered into system. It is a convenient way to recognize signs of ransomware, but users need to be careful while doing this (Digital Guardian, 2017). Monitor the Trends The past records about availability of sources of ransomware and their impacts might be helpful for IT users to get rid of this problem. For example, in Russia and Eastern Europe in 2009, the main source of ransomware distribution was email distribution with attachments. Moreover, malware laden advertising, malicious websites and sneakiness download were also included in overall process of distribution of malicious ransomware. Besides this, historical events about malware also described the overall range of cost that had to pay by victims for ransomware attacks and this range was of $60 to $1200 (Lerner, Tuttle, McDonald Tuttle, 2017). Awareness about New Version of Ransomware Instead of using past records of information about ransomware attacks, the awareness about new versions of this malicious software is also required. There are different types of ransomware such as CryptoLocker, CTB and CryptoWall. These versions are harmful and flexible enough to customized according hackers requirements. That is why now cyber-criminals or attackers have become more active to collect confidential information from databases. This knowledge can be helpful to get suitable security tool to control impact of ransomware (Bailey, 2017). Take Sound Backups It is also a suitable way to identify ransomware into system. If a user is taking sound data backup periodically then it is sure that incursion of ransomware can be identified easily. The backup of data should be clean and clear. But if any unwanted changes will be seen in backup that is connected via network to different computers then it can be measured that virus attack is implemented and it has impact on backup. After getting this information, further action should be taken quickly to remove ransomware. Now by using above strategies we can address ransomware into a computer system or a network. The knowledge about these strategies is important to have by all IT users. After analyzing that how ransomware can be identified into system or network, now in segment of report, I will discuss about techniques that must be used to restrict influence over ransomware. Strategies to control Ransomware Following strategies will help to control ransomware. Use of Updated Security Software Share the Information about Security Standards Use of Updated Security Software Anti-virus and other traditional security software solutions are not so much beneficial to resolve problem of ransomware (ERM Software, 2017). These are only suitable for controlling less vulnerable viruses. That is why, it is time to use some advanced available techniques to remove ransomware. The recent products are strong enough to identify and fix this harmful virus. Here, user just need to keep these security software solutions up to date and configuration should also be done accurately. If configuration will not be fine then required outcomes cannot get by users. These new software solutions provide maximum level of security. Moreover, all operating systems, web browsers and other web applications that are in computer systems must be updated and patched on regular interval. Updates and security patches of essential software components in a system enhance overall security and privacy of that system (, 2017). Share the Information about Security Standards Other strategic solution that can be used to resolve problem of ransomware is increase awareness among people about latest security standards that can be used to get protection from malware attacks like ransomware, spyware etc. (Osborne, 2017). This awareness can be provided through help desks, security forums and subscribing to intelligence services for threat. Moreover, in an organization, the problem of ransomware exists then periodic corporate training should be given to all levels of employees to maintain security of computer systems and networks. It is also necessary to provide them knowledge that when security tools should be updated and installed into systems (, 2017). Do not accept Suspicious Emails It is important to do at users end that they do not accept any kind of suspicious email, message and file. If in their online accounts, any unknown entity is found then that should be considered as spam and must remove from system in one click. It is important because these unknown entities are sent by hackers to different victims with harmful executable scripts and when those entities are used by victims then they spread into system and damage whole important data and files. Try to Block The blockage of any unknown entity into system is a good way of protection. It can be achieved by using blocking software solutions such as ad blocker, security patches etc. These solutions recognize the harmful entity and give alert to user. On this alert, user can block that item to enter into system and can maintain long term security. The above discussed techniques are more powerful to restrict ransomware as compare to conventional techniques. All users who are using these techniques, they are satisfied with services of these techniques. Furthermore, I would like to say that backup and recovery is necessary for every database. It is possible that an instant attack of ransomware can destroy whole database in case of absence of any security tool. In this case, if backup will be available then recovery can be done easily of whole database. Therefore, this technique should also be used strictly by users. Conclusion To sum up, I can say that whether ransomware has putting its bad impact on IT users then on other side, various new and advanced solutions are developed for prevention. It is required for users to have knowledge about those solutions to resolve issue of ransomware or any other malicious virus. Besides this, the future trends of ransomware should also be in knowledge of people to be careful in advance and maintain high level security. The future trends of ransomware include that it will become in future more attractive tool for hackers for hacking, more attacks are designed to discourage and humiliate the victim, spam campaigns will be started to target security etc. Therefore, advanced level security should be maintained at end of security experts and other IT professionals. Otherwise, heavy loss can be occurred and people will become more worried about their online information (Solutions, 2017). References ERM Software.(2017). 8 Methods to Protect Against Ransomware Attacks. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from (2017). What is Ransomware. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Rains, T. (2017). Ransomware: Understanding the Risk. Microsoft Secure Blog. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Security Intelligence. (2017). Growing Ransomware Risk Requires Stronger Security Controls. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Why SMBs are at high risk for ransomware attacks, and how they can protect themselves. (2017). TechRepublic. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Crowe, J. (2017). What are Your Odds of Suffering a Ransomware Attack?. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Team, O. (2017). What Is Ransomware And Why Do I Need To Know | Oakwood Blog. Oakwood Systems. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from A History of Ransomware Attacks: The Biggest and Worst Ransomware Attacks of All Time. (2017). Digital Guardian. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Bailey, c. (2017). Cryptolocker (Ransomware) What is it? What are the risks? What can I do? - Zenzero IT Solutions. Zenzero IT Solutions. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Ransomware Another Sign Of Security Challenges. (2017). Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Malware Symptoms and Threats. (2017). Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Solutions, C. (2017). Strategies for Preventing and Combating Ransomware. CybeRisk. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Zetter, K., Zetter, K., Greenberg, A., Staff, W., Greenberg, A., Newman, L. et al. (2017). 4 Ways to Protect Against the Very Real Threat of Ransomware. WIRED. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from 7 Ransomware Trends to Watch for in 2017 | Recorded Future. (2017). Recorded Future. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Virus, malware, and threat descriptions - Windows Defender Security Intelligence. (2017). Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Lerner, M., Tuttle, H., McDonald, C., Tuttle, H. (2017). ransomware | Risk Management Monitor. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from What is the Best Strategy for Dealing with Ransomware? Capgemini Worldwide. (2017). Retrieved 19 September 2017, from Osborne, C. (2017). The biggest malware, security threats in 2013 | ZDNet. ZDNet. Retrieved 19 September 2017, from

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Little Buddha The Path of the Enlightenment

Despite the fact that Bertolucci’s movie has a number of flaws, historical inaccuracies and a rather jumbled plot, it can still be considered a rather impressive and memorable interpretation of Siddhartha and the Four Noble Truths. The first noble truth, i.e., the truth of dukkha, or suffering and anxiety, is shown in Siddhartha’s battle with Mara, i.e., the demon representing the ego.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Little Buddha: The Path of the Enlightenment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the process, Jesse practically defeats himself; thus, through the denial of his self, he learns the nature of non-self, which leads him to the Enlightenment. The Second Truth, i.e., the origin of dukkha, is represented by Jesse’s parents, whose ignorance prevents them from letting Jesse join the ranks of the Buddhist monks. The representation of the Third Truth i.e., the cessation of dukkha, can be t raced in Jesse’s way from a Buddhist to a Buddha. Eventually, the movie unwraps the secret of the Fourth Truth, which is the path to the cessation of dukkha, as the leading character fights his personal demons to become the Enlightened One. The movie follows the source material very closely, representing each part of The Dhammapada in a unique and original way. Pairs: Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world. By non-hatred alone is hatred appeased.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is a law eternal (The Dhammapada). In the scene with the serpent, the latter embodies hatred. Just as rain does not break through a well-thatched house, so passion never penetrates a well-developed mind (The Dhammapada). The given concept is shown through Siddhartha’s fight with the serpent. Heedfulness: Heedlessness is the path to death (The Dhammapada).Advertising We wil l write a custom essay sample on Little Buddha: The Path of the Enlightenment specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Ever grows the glory of him who is energetic mindful and pure in conduct, discerning and self-controlled, righteous and heedful (The Dhammapada). As Siddhartha acquires new skills and learns new ideas, he fights his heedlessness. The mind: As a fish when pulled out of waterAdvertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More and cast on land throbs and quivers, even so is this mind agitated. Hence should one abandon the realm of Mara (The Dhammapada). Whatever harm an enemy may do to an enemy, or a hater to a hater, an ill-directed mind inflicts on oneself a greater harm (The Dhammapada). Again, the scene with the snake represents the pitfall of hatred. Flowers: As a mighty flood sweeps away the sleeping village, so death carries away the person of distracted mind who only plucks the flowers (of pleasure) (The Dhammapada). Upon a heap of rubbish in the road-side ditch blooms a lotus, fragrant and pleasing (The Dhammapada). With lotuses representing pleasures, the movie portrays the dangers of indulging into pleasures well enough. The fool: A fool who knows his foolishness is wise at least to that extent, but a fool who thinks himself wise is a fool indeed (The Dhammapada). Fools of little wit are enemies unto themselves (The Dhammapada) The concept of a fool is introduced by Siddhartha’s parents, who are at first unwilling to let their son become Sidhartha. The wise: On hearing the Teachings, the wise become perfectly purified, like a lake deep, clear and still (The Dhammapada). Those whose minds have reached full excellence in the factors of enlightenment, who, having renounced acquisitiveness, rejoice in not clinging to things — rid of cankers, glowing with wisdom, they have attained Nibbana in this very life (The Dhammapada). Wisdom, on the contrary, is introduced in the scenes with the monks. The arahant: The fever of passion exists not for him who has completed the journey (The Dhammapada) Inspiring, indeed, is that place where Arahants dwell, be it a village, a forest, a vale, or a hill (The Dhammapada) In the scene when the lead becomes Siddhartha, the latter is shown as a person who yet has much to learn. The thousands: Better than a thousand useless words is one useful word (The Dhammapada) Better it is to live one day strenuous and resolute than to live a h undred years sluggish and dissipated (The Dhammapada). The scene in which Siddhartha turns thousands of flaming arrows into flowers can be considered an allusion for Thousands. Evil: Hasten to do good; restrain your mind from evil. He who is slow in doing good, his mind delights in evil. (The Dhammapada) The snake in the movie represents evil. Some are born in the womb; the wicked are born in hell; the devout go to heaven; the stainless pass into Nibbana. (The Dhammapada) Siddhartha’s path to wisdom represents a progression from evil to stainless. Violence: Putting oneself in the place of another, one should not kill nor cause another to kill. (The Dhammapada) Speak not harshly to anyone, for those thus spoken to might retort. (The Dhammapada) In the movie, Siddhartha is intrinsically kind. Old Age: The man of little learning grows old like a bull. He grows only in bulk, but, his wisdom does not grow. (The Dhammapada) Those who in youth have not led the holy life, or have fai led to acquire wealth, languish like old cranes in the pond without fish. (The Dhammapada) The silly monks in the movie show that there are few links between age and wisdom. The self: One should first establish oneself in what is proper; then only should one instruct others. Thus the wise man will not be reproached. (The Dhammapada) By oneself is evil done; by oneself is one defiled. (The Dhammapada) By defeating his self, Siddhartha reaches his dhamma in the movie. The world: Lead a righteous life; lead not a base life. (The Dhammapada) Blind is the world; here only a few possess insight. Only a few, like birds escaping from the net, go to realms of bliss. (The Dhammapada) The world is depicted as a very secular place in the movie. The Buddha: Hard is it to be born a man; hard is the life of mortals. (The Dhammapada) Enduring patience is the highest austerity. â€Å"Nibbana is supreme,† say the Buddhas. He is not a true monk who harms another, nor a true renunciate who oppre sses others. (The Dhammapada) As the movie explains, â€Å"the gods often betray the wishes of mortal men† (Bertolucci). Happiness: Happy indeed we live, we who possess nothing. Feeders on joy we shall be, like the Radiant Gods. (The Dhammapada) There is no fire like lust and no crime like hatred (The Dhammapada). The movie declares that the happiness is an unattainable goal, which is still worth striving for: â€Å"In the end, happiness to us all, My Lord† (Bertolucci). Affection: From affection springs grief, from affection springs fear. (The Dhammapada) From craving springs grief, from craving springs fear. (The Dhammapada) Siddhartha is taught to take control of his passions in the movie. Anger: Overcome the angry by non-anger (The Dhammapada). Let a man guard himself against irritability in speech; let him be controlled in speech. (The Dhammapada) The training that the leading character undergoes represent the process of fighting anger. Impurity: Make an island un to yourself! Strive hard and become wise! (The Dhammapada) Unchastity is the taint in a woman; niggardliness is the taint in a giver. (The Dhammapada) The concept of purity is expressed through using the pronoun â€Å"he† when talking about the female llama: â€Å"Llama Dorje wasn’t a woman. He was the abbessof a convent† (Bertolucci). The just: Not by mere eloquence nor by beauty of form does a man become accomplished, if he is jealous, selfish and deceitful. (The Dhammapada) The sage (thus) rejecting the evil, is truly a sage. (The Dhammapada) The movie shows that being just is the ultimate path to Enlightenment. The path: Of all the paths the Eightfold Path is the best; of all the truths the Four Noble Truths are the best; of all things passionlessness is the best: of men the Seeing One (the Buddha) is the best. (The Dhammapada) The eight folds of the oath are shown through the stages of Siddhartha’s enlightenment. â€Å"All conditioned things are uns atisfactory† (The Dhammapada) Miscellaneous: If by renouncing a lesser happiness one may realize a greater happiness, let the wise man renounce the lesser, having regard for the greater. (The Dhammapada) Therefore, be not an aimless wanderer, be not a pursuer of suffering. (The Dhammapada) Suffering is mentioned several times in the movie as both the path to dhamma and something to free the world from: â€Å"I have been born to reach Enlightenment†¦ and free all creatures from suffering† (Bertolucci). Hell: There are many evil characters and uncontrolled men wearing the saffron robe. (The Dhammapada) Any loose act, any corrupt observance, any life of questionable celibacy — none of these bear much fruit. (The Dhammapada) Weirdly enough, the idea of hell does not occur in the movie. The elephant: Best among men is the subdued one who endures abuse. (The Dhammapada) Better it is to live alone; there is no fellowship with a fool. (The Dhammapada) By being able to withstand the arrogance of the rest of the world, he is able to reach dhamma. Craving: Whoever is overcome by this wretched and sticky craving, his sorrows grow like grass after the rains. (The Dhammapada) Beset by craving, people run about like an entrapped hare. (The Dhammapada) Siddhartha’s enemies are displayed in the movie as the people with wretched cravings. The monk: The monk who abides in the Dhamma, delights in the Dhamma, meditates on the Dhamma, and bears the Dhamma well in mind — he does not fall away from the sublime Dhamma. (The Dhammapada) Empty this boat, O monk! Emptied, it will sail lightly. Rid of lust and hatred, you shall reach Nibbana. (The Dhammapada) The final scene in the movie shows Siddhartha reaching Dhamma. The holy man: He who is free of cares and is unfettered — him do I call a holy man. (The Dhammapada) Because he has discarded evil, he is called a holy man. (The Dhammapada) Both verses can be referred to Siddhartha’s p ath of becoming a holy man. Two scenes stand out especially in the movie. To start with, Siddhartha’s first encounter with his demons is worth mentioning. Another impressive scene comes at the very end of the movie, when the sand mandala, which must have been representing the passage from the secular life to the Enlightenment. The given scenes represent the key Dhammapada postulates, i.e., the pursuit of wisdom and the completeness of the Path.  Finally, the showdown between Mara and Siddhartha deserves a mentioning. Though shot in a typically Hollywood traditions, it still carries the flair of the original story. The fight with Mara can also be considered an attempt to cease dukkha, i.e., access the Fourth Truth, seeing how Mara clearly represents Siddhartha’s tortures: â€Å"You are pure illusion, you do not exist. The earth is my witness† (Bertolucci). Works Cited Bertolucci, Bernardo (Dir.) and Jeremy Thomas (Ex. Prod.). Little Buddha. Keanu Reeves, Bridge t Fonda, Chris Isaac (Perf.). New York, NY: Miramax Films. 1993. Web. Netflix. The Dhammapada. n. d. Web. This essay on Little Buddha: The Path of the Enlightenment was written and submitted by user Hayley T. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Critical Analysis of Your Own Writing

Critical Analysis of Your Own Writing Critical Analysis of Your Own Writing Critical Analysis of Your Own Writing By Guest Author This is a guest post by Alice Peterson . If you want to write for Daily Writing Tips check the guidelines here. So you think you have something to say? How do you get past the stymieing effect of self-analysis? Is this good enough? Will your target audience be provoked to the point of discomfort? Are you â€Å"okay with that?† American literature today is in danger of being hampered by the three-minute attention span. Educators are being taught that that there is a â€Å"generational culture† (isn’t that an oxymoron? I’ll save that for a later article) wherein our audience no longer has the abstract-thinking ability to solve a complex problem. Our literary contributions are bound to suffer. How can we sidestep this problem and improve our critical thinking skills for writing? Here is I challenge I have for you: attempt to read the passage below and answer the following questions in four minutes. Are the characters consistent with their time and place? Is the dialogue appropriate to both the audience of the writer and the character? Is the writing original and thought-provoking? Some might call Big J a megalomaniac. Although a tradesman by day, he threw lavish outdoor parties on weekends in his fishing village of Golly Me for anyone who would listen to his bombastic diatribes against the status quo. He was known for preparing local cuisine with few calories but full satiety, for this strategy ever-expanded his circle of close friends. Tonight, with a full belly and the feeling of being in an exclusive club, I felt a sense of purpose and renewed energy in my middle age. I was ready to hear Big J’s pronouncements for the week. â€Å"I am the alpha and the omega,† he broadcast to 5,000 of us with only a megaphone to help his voice carry. Heads in the crowd restlessly turned right-to-left and left-to-right. Confused faces repeated the words in their native English. Sure, Big J is the smartest guy in the room. Few of us had been to college and studied foreign languages. What was he talking about? It was Greek to me. 1. â€Å"Why here, why now?† This is the simplest tool of critical thinking. Why did I have the character suddenly speak in a language foreign to his fictional audience? No one in my story was well-travelled, or had been to college yet. They might not even read well or at all. Perhaps it was to establish J as â€Å"the smartest guy in the room,† well-travelled and culturally astute. I have to determine if this anachronism detracts from the scene, or if it is worth it so I can later sell simple fish trinkets that are coincidentally shaped like the Greek letter alpha. 2. What about the first paragraph? Is it realistic to say low-calorie, highly satisfying food is a crowd pleaser? We are in a fishing village, so the local cuisine is fish. We know most fish contains protein and healthy fats which do produce a full feeling for fewer calories than meals heavy in carbohydrates. 3. What about the megaphone? Have I ever been at an outdoor event at the back of a crowd of 5,000 and heard the entertainment clearly over a megaphone? Personally, I am not a fan of the outdoor concerts with sophisticated electronic s and speakers. Just a few hundred people or so between myself and the stage will greatly reduce my acoustical enjoyment. Although we all look for time-savers throughout our day, practice is truly the best way to improve skills. This exercise probably took you between four and five minutes to complete. Keep applying this tool to everything you read and write, and you will be rewarded with expert skills, and maybe a little discomfort. Alice Peterson serves on the editorial review board for the Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:When to Use â€Å"That,† â€Å"Which,† and â€Å"Who†"Wracking" or "Racking" Your Brain?Glimpse and Glance: Same or Different?

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Women and Politics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Women and Politics - Essay Example Policy decisions in such circumstances are necessarily to be meticulous at least for the time being. American deregulation of genetically engineered food products such as Geep meat (a cross between a sheep and a goat) and certain forms of new vegetables into Canadian market is the best example of the like situation. Media analysis on this issue had critically assumed that the decision should have been of Canadian origin.(Joel Schalit, 1994 ). Going back in centuries, we can have an overall idea of politics through Aristotle2. His science of politics encompasses two different fields namely ethics and political philosophy. As regards ethics his contention that practical wisdom could not be acquired solely by learning general rules is noteworthy. Answers to the abstract question of whether egoistic behaviour serves the general good can be got from general equilibrium theory with respect to some idealized circumstances. This theory does not matter if people are in fact egoistic3. The conventional alienation of women in politics has almost disappeared. The gender gap has become the defining feature of the US elections since the previous two and a half decades. In fact the gender differences were apparent in many races since 2006 and still continue to be long-term trends. Women as voters have developed themselves as an efficient controlling factor in elections. This showed their knowledge of politics would set trends in politics. (Susan J. Carroll, 2006). The recent voting trend in the Super Tuesday Races of February 5, 2008 confirms the gender gap. In California and Masachusettes, where Hilary Clinton won the gender gap was just 14 while in Utah where Obama won the gap was 204. The role of media that is considered to be a formative pillar in any democracy still lacks its interest in propagating the achievements of women politicians. The Round Table conducted by IPU in 1997 made efforts to its fullest strength to bring the women politicians more in

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Media Relations Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 8

Media Relations - Assignment Example There are several significant values that are attached to the Ramadan festivities in the Islam calendar, and being the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, Muslims are mostly expected to fast from dawn till sunset for about 29 or 30 days. Given that the Islamic calendar is determined by the lunar cycle including the Ramadan that comes after the ninth month, with the glimpsing of the new moon (Murray, 2012). Taken from the Arabic word ar-ramad implying dryness or scotching heat, Ramadan signifies a mandatory fasting season for the adult Muslims in which in the entire ‘blessed month’ they are required to abstain from foods, drinks and other physical needs. Ramadan is intended to be a time for cleansing the soul, focusing attention on God and enthusiastic self-sacrifice. Eating begins after sunset, taking into consideration the aspect of cleansing the soul for God. Hence, Ramadan can be perceived as a period when Muslims are educated on matters of spirituality, patience and humility (Murray, 2012). Persons are required not to engage in defiling activities that may hinder their purity. In other aspects Muslims are required to restrain their bodies, particularly the tongue from aspects of gossip and backbiting. Immediately after Ramadan, follows the celebrations for the holiday of Eid-ul-Fitr. Non-Muslims should perceive this month as a highlighting of the Muslim brotherhood customs, and brings a special feeling of closeness (Murray, 2012). â€Å"The philosophy of fasting calls upon us to know ourselves, to master ourselves, and to discipline ourselves the better to free ourselves. To fast is to identify our dependencies, and free ourselves from them.†- Tariq

Monday, November 18, 2019

Film Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Film Analysis - Essay Example He joined a Neo- Kazi movement where he befriended the leaders of that group, and started his mission with rage. When in the movement he killed two black men who were members of the gang. Before he killed them he found them trying to break into the truck that his father had left for him. Later he was imprisoned for three years as a result of manslaughter. As the film starts, there is a flashback, where Danny is trying to get some sleep but he cannot sleep because he was disturbed by the noise coming out from his brothers’ room. The brother was having sex with his girlfriend. He then hears another voice from outside, when he peeped through the window he saw a black man who was trying to break into his brothers’ truck. Danny ran into his brothers’ room to inform him about what he had seen. Derrick ran out with his pistol and started firing at the black men, and he managed to kill all of them. After that incidence Derrick is sentenced for three years imprisonment. I n prison, he was raped by the fellow skinheads but later was befriended by a black man whom he had to work for, just for his security in prison. The experience that Derrick went through, when in prison changed him forever. On his return home he realized that his younger brother Danny had started to involve himself with the group of white supremacy. Danny was spitting the racial slurs right and left, the same way that Derrick used to do before he was imprisoned (Smith, 2007). Derrick was in dismay when he realized that his family was torn apart, due to his violent action. Immediately after his release he goes to try and see if he can bring the family together. He wanted to reconcile with his sisters and mother, and also to change Danny from his behaviors that were disturbing. Towards the end of the film, it was clear that Derrick was able to change Danny to be the boy that he ones. To distance themselves from the white supremacy the boys had to tear down the pro-Nazi and racist propa ganda that were on the walls in Danny’s bedroom. After he stripped off the hate that was in his room Danny embarked working on his schoolwork paper. The initial intention of that paper was to share about hi Derrick’s lifestyle when in the Neo-Kazi movement (Christopher, 2008). But when he saw how his brother had transformed, his paper took another direction. He wrote a paper full of hope, telling how he and his brother were freed from bondage of rage and bigotry. Towards the end of the film Derrick escorts his brother to school and he bid him bye. After a short while when he went Derrick heard gun shots when he ran to the site he saw his brother lying on the floor with the essay next to him. The film American history X shows some incivility. The emotions of incivility are created in the film because there is a group in the film that is known as the white supremacy. Derrick was in the group and his rage to the blacks is shown when he kills the three black men. He murder ed them brutally because he considered the blacks, an inferior race. Another emotion of incivility is by that instance in the film American history, where Danny was shot by a black (Parfit, 2008). This boy killed him because he was filled with hatred against the whites. The other incidence that shows incivility is when Derricks’ father was murdered by a black man who was a drug dealer. When Danny died Derrick ran to him and started mourning as he asked himself what he had done that led to his

Friday, November 15, 2019

Crisis Of Governance In Pakistan Politics Essay

Crisis Of Governance In Pakistan Politics Essay The concept of governance is as old as human civilization. The word governance has its origin in Greek and it means to steer. In simple words the governance is the process of decision making and the process by which it is implemented (or not implemented). Good governance means that the affairs of the state are managed honestly, with every system in place, where merit is never ignored, rules are meticulously followed and where everyone is equal before law. This could only be achieved if public institutions are strong, independent and responsive to the sentiments of the public. Governance is generally conceived as the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to improve the quality of life of the people. Governance is a continuous process where divergent opinions and desires are satisfied through compromise and tolerance in a spirit of cooperative action for the mutual benefit of the masses. The basic objective of good governance is to improve the quality of life of people, to ensure that their needs are met equitably. Politics is about the creation and distribution of power among organizations, tribes, communities or society at large. Governance is the mechanism, which controls the relationship between the two extremes the governed and the governors. The political process lies at the core of governance and this can be said to be efficient only if elections are free and fair, the elected are accountable, whereas authority is divided between the legislature, the bureaucracy and the judiciary with decentralization of power. 1.2 Why did I select this topic? Although there are a number of studies on the subject, yet they are generalized in nature and only a few researches have been made relevant to Pakistan. Therefore, emphasis of thesis would be on crisis of governance in Pakistan with special reference to the alien perception (to me, a misperception) of as a failed state because of its bad or misgovernance and its legal aspects. It will include the current situation, its causes and effects, its socio-economic and strategic aspect, the plight of common man and the causality between bad governance and incapacities of the state apparatus responsible for public service delivery and criminal justice system, as well as prospects of course of correction through reforms and institution building. For the preparation of this paper, numbers of research articles, journals and books written by national and international researchers and authors, and different case laws of the apex courts have been consulted. The concept of governance and crisis of governance have been discussed at length in these write-ups. Since the concept of governance in Pakistan has very recently gained focus, there are a few studies on this subject, available in public libraries. Some of the significant studies are briefly reviewed here. The Crisis of Governance and Human Development in South Asia  [2]  explains some of the main crisis of governance in South Asia, its causes and suggests ways to eradicate them. Panandiker has explained the main problems faced by the South Asian countries specially India and Pakistan relating to governance system  [3]  . Ehsan Niaz has discussed cultural aspect of the country right from 1947 and its affects upon governance. He has also explained the role of civil soci ety, politicians and bureaucracy to solve the problems of governance  [4]  . Jan Mohammad Dawood has explained the role and function of superior judiciary in the politics of Pakistan  [5]  . These views will be discussed with special reference to Pakistan. 1.3 Hypothesis/Research Question? Root cause of the crisis of governance in Pakistan is the failure on the part of our successive governments who did not focus their attention on institutional development. Instead, they weakened, corrupted and politicized the existing institutions to an extent that they have become almost non-functional. Research Questions What are the root causes of crisis of governance in Pakistan? What is good Governance and absence of it in Pakistan? Is the state willing to restrict itself to the sovereign functions and to restructure and reform the institutions of governance? What are the controls over Governance? How governance can be improved in Pakistan? 1.4 Scheme of the thesis The research has been divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 is introductory which explains the whole paper with its national and international context, its importance and objects etc. Chapter 2 explains how Pakistan has been facing governance problems right from its beginning. These problems were due to many reasons such as incompetent civil bureaucracy, frequent military interventions, incompetent politicians, lack of accountability system, and non independent judiciary. All these problems have not allowed to flourish Pakistan to become a developed state irrespective of that it has been blessed with both human and natural resources. Chapter 3 deals with the consequences of bad governance and problem of governance. Chapter 4 deals with the role of civil society, judiciary, media and other state building institutions. Chapter 5 deals with the conclusion and recommendations to improve the good governance. Pakistan has faced governance problem right from its very beginning. While most of the comparable countries of Asia which have prospered, started from a comparable low initial level of socio-economic conditions, but have over the period of several decades, created much more sound and stable social conditions. Even India has managed to come out of the classic image of low performance and governance ills, while Pakistan deteriorates on a continuing basis, despite claims of good performance and success. 1.5 Statement of the Problem Problems of governance have been endemic in our country ever since the unfortunate death of the father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, only a year after the creation of Pakistan. Problems of governance seem to emanate from the unholy alliance between the then so-called political elite and the bureaucrats involved in politics. 4 This state of affairs has adversely affected the quality of life of over 180 million people of this country, making their life and liberty miserable. This situation warrants an in-depth study of the causes and their effects on lives and liberties of our people to establish objective face of current crisis of governance and the prospects of reforms and institutions building. 1.6 INTRODUCTION TO GOOD GOVERNANCE Recently the terms governance and good governance are being increasingly used in modern literature. Bad governance is being increasingly regarded as one of the root causes of all evil within our societies. Major donors and international financial institutions are increasingly making their aid and loans depending on the condition that such reforms should be made that ensure good governance. Following paragraphs will try to explain, as simply as possible, what governance and good governance means. 1.7 Governance Meanings of governance: The World Bank defines governance as; The exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources to manage societys problems and affairs. 6 An alternate definition suggests that governance is; The use of institutions, structures of authority and even collaboration to allocate resources and coordinate or control activity in society or the economy. English-speakers sometimes erroneously confuse the term governance with the term government. 6 David Bigman oxford publication ed:2011 The exercise of political authority and the use of institutional resources, p.1 5 According to the UNDPs Regional Project on Local Governance for Latin America: Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the proper functioning of institutions and theft acceptance by the public (legitimacy), and it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation). The concept of governance is not new, it is as old as human civilization. Simply put governance means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be used in several contexts such as corporate governance, international governance, national governance and local governance7. Since governance is the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented, an analysis of governance focuses on the formal and informal actors involved in decision-making and implementing the decisions made by the formal and informal structures that have been set in place to arrive at and implement the decision. Government is one of the actors in governance. Other actors involved in governance vary depending on the level of government that is under discussion. In rural areas, for example, other actors may include influential landlords, associations of peasant farmers, cooperatives, NGOs, research institutes, religious leaders, finance institutions, political parties and the military etc. The situation in urban areas is much more complex. 7. Khan, Hamid Carvan publication ed: March 4th 2004 Constitutional and Political History of Pakistan, p.1 6 At the national level, in addition to the above actors, media, lobbyists, international donors, multi-national corporations, etc., may play a role in decision-making or in influencing the decision-making process. All actors other than government and the military are grouped together as part of the civil society. In some countries in addition to the civil society, organized crime syndicates also influence decision-making, particularly in urban areas and at the national level. . Similarly formal government structures are one means by which decisions are arrived at and implemented. At the national level, informal decision-making structures, such as kitchen cabinets or informal advisors may exist. In urban areas, organized crime syndicates such as the Land Mafia may influence decision-making. In some rural areas locally powerful families may make or influence decision-making. Such, informal decision- making is often the result of corrupt practices or leads to corrupt practices. 8 1.8 Good Governance Good governance has eight major characteristics. It is participatory consensus oriented, accountable, transparent, responsive, effective, efficient, equitable, inclusive and follows the rule of law. It assures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account and that the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. It is also responsive to the present and future needs of society. 9 8 accessed on 23rd October 2012 9 Ibid. 7 1.8.1 Participation is key cornerstone of good governance Participation by both men and women is a key cornerstone of good governance. Participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. It is important to point out that representative democracy does not necessarily mean that the concerns of the most vulnerable in society would be taken into consideration in decision-making. Participation needs to be informed and organized. This means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand. 10 1.8.2 Rule of Law Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It also requires full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities. Impartial enforcement of laws requires an independent judiciary and an impartial and incorruptible police force. The rule of law is the principle that governmental authority is legitimately exercised only in accordance with written, publicly disclosed laws adopted and enforced in accordance with established procedure. The principle is intended to be a safeguard against arbitrary governance. In continental European legal thinking, rule of law is associated with a Rechtsstaat. According to Anglo-American thinking, hallmarks of adherence to the rule of law commonly include a clear separation of powers, legal certainty the principle of legitimate expectation and equality of all before the law.11 10. G.W.Chaudhary Oxford publications Ed:2007 Constitutional Development in Pakistan, p.180 11. Sir Henry Wheeler, Report of the Government of India Secretariat Committee, ( Delhi: Government of India Press, 1937), p.1 8 Some authors, as J. Shklar, claims that the phrase the Rule of Law has become meaningless due to ideological abuse and general over-use. Samuel Rutherford was one of the first modem authors to give the principle theoretical foundations in Lex, Rex (1644), and later Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws (1748). Rule of law is opposed by authoritarian and totalitarian states. The explicit policy of those governments, as evidenced in the Night and Fog decrees of Nazi Germany, is that the government possesses the inherent authority to act purely on its own volition and without being subject to any checks or limitations. Dictatorships generally establish secret police forces, which are not accountable to established laws, which can suppress threats to state authority. 12 Critiques on rule of law The rule of law, i.e., the application of the body of law to the government, does not restrict the government in any way since any desired government privilege can be made by the government into a legal provision. The rule of law should be seen as a bureaucratic hope for the government to jump through, rather than as a material restriction on government power. This criticism is though mostly relevant where the principle of the separation of powers is not respected (i.e., where the legislative power and the executive power the government-are held by the same body). When the government is not also the legislative body, the principle of the rule of law may hold. Another critique is that the principle of legal equality can be easily subverted since many laws affect different people in different ways. 12. Rowland Egger, Pub: Karachi: The Inter-Services Press, 1953 The Improvement of Public Administration in Pakistan; p.10 9 A law giving the legislators a raise, for example, affects the legislators in a different way than it affects the rest of the public. But since such laws are not necessarily made in accordance with the rule of law, it remains unclear if this criticism is really aimed at the principle of the rule of law itself rather than to actual legislatures. Marxist theory analyzed the capitalist state as an instrument of oppression of the people at the hands of the bourgeoisie, which set the laws to suit it. Following this, some critical theorists analyze the rule of law as a judicial fiction which aims at disguising the reality of violence and, in Marxist terminology class struggle. This theory presumes that the bourgeoisie holds the power to set the laws13. The Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben argues that the state of exception is at the core of the concept of sovereignty, and not the rule of law as liberal thinkers have it. While the sovereign claims to follow the rule of law, any protection the people have, however fundamental, can be thrown away once the government finds it convenient to do so.14 1.8.3 Transparency Transparency means that decisions taken and their enforcement are done in a manner that follows rules and regulations. It also means that information is freely available and directly accessible to those who will be affected by such decisions and their enforcement. It also means that enough information is provided and that it is provided in easily understandable forms and media. 13. Rowland Egger, Pub: Karachi: The Inter-Services Press, 1953 The Improvement of Public Administration in Pakistan; p.18 14. Rowland Egger, Pub: Karachi: The Inter-Services Press, 1953 The Improvement of Public Administration in Pakistan; p.10 10 1.8.4 Responsiveness Good governance requires that institutions and processes try to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable timeframe. 1.8.5 Consensus oriented society There are several actors and as many view points in a given society. Good governance requires mediation of the different interests in society to reach a broad consensus in society on what is in the best interest of the whole community and how this can be achieved. It also requires a broad and long-term perspective on what is needed for sustainable human development and how to achieve the goals of such development. This can only result from an understanding of the historical, cultural and social contexts of a given society or community15. 1.8.6 Equity and Inclusiveness A societys well-being depends on ensuring that all its members feel that they have a stake in it and do not feel excluded from the mainstream of society. This requires all groups, but particularly the most vulnerable, have opportunities to improve or maintain their well-being. 1.8.7 Effective and efficient administration Good governance means that processes and institutions produce results that meet the needs of society while making the best use of resources at their disposal. The concept of efficiency in the context of good governance also covers the sustainable use of natural resources and the protection of the environment. 16 15. Syed Mujawar Hussain Shah, Pub: West view Press, Ed: 1995 Religion and Politics in Pakistan, p.68 16. Ibid 11 1.8.8 Accountability Accountability is a key requirement of good governance. Not only public institutions but also the private sector and civil society organizations must be accountable to the public and to their institutional stakeholders. Who is accountable to who varies depending on whether decisions or actions taken are internal or external to an organization or institution. In general an organization or an institution is accountable to those who will be affected by its decisions or actions. Accountability cannot be enforced without transparency and the rule of law17. Now it should be clear that good governance is an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality. Very few countries and societies have come close to achieving good governance in its totality. However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal with the aim of making it a reality. 1.9 Good governance: an ideal which is difficult to achieve in its totality However, to ensure sustainable human development, actions must be taken to work towards this ideal. Major donors and international financial institutions, like the IMF or World Bank, are increasingly basing their aid and loans on the condition that those reforms ensuring good governance are undertaken13. 1.10 What does Good Governance Ensures? Governance ensures that corruption is minimized, the views of minorities are taken into account, and the voices of the most vulnerable in society are heard in decision-making. 17. Dr. Rafique Ahmad, Pub: Asia Publishing House, 1964 Pakistan: Political History, p.102 12 It also makes certain, the participation by both men and women, participation could be either direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives. Participation also means freedom of association and expression on the one hand and an organized civil society on the other hand, other factors that good governance guarantees are full protection of human rights, particularly those of minorities, independent judiciary, an impartial and incorruptible police force. 1.11 International Pledges: Through United Nations Convention against corruption in its resolution 55/61, the General Assembly recognized that an effective international legal instrument against corruption, independent of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime was desirable. The text of the Convention was negotiated during seven sessions held between 21 January 2002 and 1 October 2003. The Convention was adopted by the General Assembly on 31 October 2003, and Pakistan is signatory of it. 18 18. accessed on 26th October 2012 13 CHAPTER 2 PROBLEMS OF GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN Pakistan inherited a well functioning structure of judiciary, civil service and military but a relatively weak legislative oversight at the time of its independence. Over time the domination of civil service and military in the affairs of the state disrupted the evolution of the democratic political processes and further weakened the legislative organ of the state. The judicial arm, with a few exceptions, clump along to purify the dominant role of the military and the civil service. 2.1 Constitutional Aspects Criterion of governance, as provided in the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 is incorporated in the following articles. Article 4 of the constitution guarantees rule of law in Pakistan and it makes Government duty bound to deal with the rights of the individuals in accordance with law, it is to be noted that the article uses the word in accordance with law not in accordance with the law which means the framer of the Constitution wished to give this rule of law clause a wider scope rather than to be limited to some specified laws. Articles 8 to 28 provided in the Constitution are not only rights provided to the citizen but auto-limitations in these rights also provide guiding principles to the Government to go for Good Governance remaining within the auto limits of these Fundamental Rights. For instance in Benazir Bhutto vs. Federation of Pakistan19 it was held that the Constitution has provided auto-limitations, or in-built restraints, on the exercise of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed the Constitution. 19. PLD 1988 SC 416 14 Such auto-limitations or inbuilt restraints not only provide protection to the rights themselves, but also further the interest of social solidarity, sought to be achieved by the makers of the Constitution. Articles 78 to 88, and Articles 118 to 127 and Articles 160 to 171 provides practical procedure for the Financial Governance of the Government both at the Federal and Provincial level, the exact follow-up of the procedure results in Good Financial Governance. 2.2 Kinds of governance in Pakistan. Governance by Federal Government The Constitution provides Articles 90 to 100 for the Federal Governance for Federal Government. Governance by Provincial Government The Constitution provides Articles 129 to 140 for the Provincial Governance for Provincial Government. III- Governance by Local Government The Constitution provides Articles 140/A for the Local Body Governance for Local Government. 2.3 Conflict of Governance and their Constitutional Solutions: The conflict of governance and their solution are dealt in Articles 141 to 144, and article 143 especially deals with Federal, Provincial and District governance Article 152/A, and articles 153 to 159 also provide means to resolve conflict of governance. Here the council of common interest is worth mentioning. It also provides a plane to resolve conflict of Governance amount Federal and Provincial Governments. 15 The Council of Common Interest is a vital constitutional body. Its main object is to care for the common interest of all the provinces. It is the best tool available to resolve the differences, problems and disputes between the Provinces and the Federation. It regulates the policies in relation to the matters in Part II of the Federal Legislative list. The limits of the Council of Common Interest can be understood by the following Case Law. Shamsuddin Qurashi Vs. Finance Member, Railway Board20 It was held that functions of the Council of Common Interests is to formulate and regulate policies with regard to the matters relating to the affairs of the Federation. It has nothing to do with power of the Parliament to legislate or the executive authority of the Federal Government to deal with the employees of the Federal Government. 2.4 The Quran as a Guide line for Good Governance read with Article 227 of the Constitution of Pakistan 1973: O ye who believe! Stand out firmly for Qist (justice), as witnesses to God, even as against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, and whether it be (against) rich or poor: for Allah can best protect both. Follow not the lusts {of your hearts), lest ye swerve, and if ye distort (justice) or decline to do justice, verily Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do. [4/135] And O my people! Give measure and weight in Qist (justice) and reduce not the things that are due to the people, and do not commit mischief in the land causing corruption. [Prophet Shoaib (PBUH) to the people of Madyan 11:85] 20. 1980 PLC (C.S) 207 16 2.5 Civil Bureaucracy and Governance Civil Service in Pakistan is a permanent institution and has to be above party politics. Bureaucracy as a whole remains unchanged with the change of political governments barring transfers with the Ministries / Departments. The history of bureaucracy is not up to the mark, the years in which an elected civilian executive exercised control over bureaucracy. Later on the civilian bureaucracy more or less dominated at all levels of governance. After that the military bureaucracy assumed more or less direct command of all policy making. Then there were years when nobody was really in charge. In terms of performance, the period between 1947 to 1969 was probably the best. Pakistan overcame severe initial challenges and embarked upon an impressive modernization program. The Ayubs regime was better in terms of the countrys economic conditions but bureaucracy take over the key positions of the country which mostly proved to be corrupt and they adversely affected the governance of the country2 1. During the Zia era, bureaucracy was little comfortable with him and a marginal recovery of the conditions of service brought some stabilization in civil service. Bureaucracy was in line with government but it totally failed to provide justice, fair play and merit to the people of Pakistan. In both Benazir and Nawaz Sharif era bureaucracy was fully involved in politics and merit was totally ignored, Corruption was at its peak. As mostly bureaucrats were incompetent so they failed to deliver good governance in the country. During post 1999 era, bureaucracy was the worst hit segment of state apparatus. Musharraf in pursuit of perpetuation of his illegitimate rule tried to bulldoze anything and everything that he thought may hinder his adventure for power. 21. Panandiker, Sudha publishers Ed: 2009 Problems of Governance in South Asia, p 212-213 17 By introducing PCO judges in superior judiciary, he involved his military in routine administrative matters ranging from collection of electricity bills to managing state owned public enterprises. He introduced the Devolution of Power Plan 2000, doing away with the centuries old time-tested administrative service, without realizing its adverse consequences. Placing the civil bureaucracy subordinate to a local government representative namely Nazim of the district was an attempt to put the cart before the horse, which did not work22. 2.6 Frequent Military Interventions From the ancient centers of civilizations in China, Egypt, India and Persia to the classical Hellenic and Roman empires, feudal domains, medieval aristocracies and more recent enlightened despotisms of Europe, it was the sword that dominated the spirit18. It shows that whenever military interfered in the civil government, it has destroyed the whole system of governance the same holds truth for Pakistan. Military has interfered the country many times, much to the destruction of whole democratic system and governance. It has never allowed the state building institutions to flourish so that they could help to maintain good governance in the country. Had military not frequently intervened in the internal administration of the country, we would have a fully developed system of administration in the country and we would have not faced the governance problem. Once the military acquainted itself with the taste of political power, the entire fabric of the constitutional development came crashing down. 23 22. Ilhan Niaz, Karachi: Oxford University Press, Ed: 2010, The Culture of Power and Governance of Pakistan p138-141 23 Ibid 18 Due to clash of legitimacy and prudence, Pakistan has been trapped in a cycle of instability with the military and civilian political leadership destabilizing each other24. The age old Doctrine of necessity has paved the way for military for martial laws. The history of these doctrines can be traced in following cases. Dosso Vs. Federation of Pakistan25, In Dossos case (1958), the Pakistan Supreme Court used jurist Hans Kelsens theory that a revolution can be justified when the basic norm underlying a Constitution disappears and a new system is put in its place. Molvi Tamiz-ud-din Khan Case26, in Molvi Tamizuddin Khan case, the Supreme Court headed by Chief Justice Mohammad Munir backed Governor General Ghulam Mohammads action to dissolve the first Constitutional Assembly. This judgement of the Supreme Court is always strongly criticized by all democratic parties of Pakistan and is referred to as a root-cause of unstable democracy in Pakistan. Nusrat Bhutto Vs. Chief of Army staff and Federation of Pakistan27 On November 10, 1977 the Supreme Court unanimously validated the imposition of the martial law, under the doctrine of necessity. The law of necessity recognized and upheld by Pakistans highest judicial body, has proved an honorable protection for military adventure in civil government. 24. Shahrukh Rafi Khan, Fozia Sadik Khan and Aasim Sajjad Akhtar, Initiating Devolution for Service Delivery in Pakistan: Ignoring the Power Structure (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2007), 4 25. PLD 1958 SC 533 26. PLD 1955 F.C 24 27. PLD 1977 SC 657 19 2.7 End of Doctrine of Necessity in Pakistan a good sign for governance in Pakistan In PCO Judges case on July 31, 2009, the full bench of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, decided once and for all that the doctrine of necessity is absolutely inapplicable in Pakistan and such precedent can never be cited in